Feet resting on stools adorned with ruffles, Four young women form a rare female ensemble of strings (Choronas, Women Choro Players). Rio de Janeiro, 1910s.
Choro (“cry” or “lament”), popularly called chorinho (“little cry” or “little lament”), is an instrumental Brazilian popular music genre which originated in 19th century Rio de Janeiro. Choro is considered the first characteristically Brazilian genre of urban popular music. “
"To tell you the truth I could live with anyone, or anywhere. Because I know I’m going to leave that place anyway." - Juliette Binoche
"Binoche might stand for all that is quintessentially French, but she is part Flemish, Polish, French and, several generations back, Brazilian, a real nomad. " standard.co.uk [ + ]
French-Brazil colonization (summary) 1. Pernambuco 1531 2. France Antarctique, Rio de Janeiro 1550-1560 3. Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, 1554 4. Tamoio Confederation, São Paulo/Rio de Janeiro 1556-1567 5. Olinda, Recife, Pernambuco, 1584, 1590-1595 6. Ferando de Noronha (Pernambuco/Ceará) 1556-1612 7. Ibiapaba, Ceará, 1590-1604 8. Maceió, Alagoas, 1591, 1613 and 1614 9. France Equinoctial, São Luis do Maranhão 1612-1615 10. Rio de Janeiro, 1710-1711
for this reason Brazilians speak the guttural french “r” in these regions.
Resolution from the National Justice Council allows individuals to register their names in their native language and, together with other initiatives and measures, helps to preserve indigenous origins in Brazil. The indigenous Brazilians who had to register with names in Portuguese also will be allowed to change them now.
"I know for a fact that, after the Americans, Brazilians are probably the other nationality that get very imaginative when it comes to baby names. They take risks, they get creative, they do mush-ups, they borrow from other cultures and, sometimes, they out-right make up their children’s names. And they do it big.”
"One aspect of Brazilian baby naming that has always fascinated me is the fact that they love to put an -ly at the end of most names."
"Another sound that is attracting Brazilian parents to certain names is the -ara ending. This small trend is nowhere near as obvious as the -ly and -li one, but it occurred with enough frequency that it warrants a mention. These were the names that popped up with the -ara element: Maiara, Nayara, Yara, Lara, Luara …"
Peabiru is the name given to a historic indigenous precolumbian trail with an extension of more than 1.000 kilometers, from the Brazilian coast to Paraguay, the Bolivian highland, Peru and finally to the Pacific.
In Tupi Guarani language, “Peabiru” means “way there and back”.
Peabiru paths were walked by the Guarani in search of Yvy Marã Ey or the Land without Evil. Walking is a sacred act for the Guarani and they report that Peabiru is aligned with the Milky Way, the Guarani´s ´Way of the Tapir´. In walking, the Guarani purify themselves to reach the Land Without Evil, which seems to be conceived as both a physical and spiritual plane. Bond reports that the Guarani followed the Peabiru paths and then the pre-Inca paths in the West to reach the Pacific in the 6th Century and that some groups of indigenous pilgrims were found to have walked westward along Peabiru also. However, for the most part, the Guarani walked the Peabiru from west to east from Paraguay and the interior of Brazil to arrive at the Atlantic Coast, which is sacred to them. They located Yvy Mara Ey somewhere to the east in the Atlantic Ocean.
The Peabiru is sacred for another reason too. Bond, Donani among others, reveal that the Guarani attribute the opening of the Peabiru to the mysterious Sumé, a tall, white, bearded man who arrived on the Brazilian coast hundreds or thousands of years before the European conquistadors, walking on the water of the Atlantic ocean. Sumé taught the Guarani how to clear parts of the forest and plant their crops of mandioc, corn and mate, their now sacred crops.
Along the route from the Atlantic coast, through Brazil and Paraguay, there are similiar legends of Sumé, Tumé or Zumé. At Lake Titicaca, researchers relate a similar figure in local lore, called Tunupa, a doppelganger for Sumé. In Peru and Bolivia, folklore tells that this god-man with light skin and a beard, called Wiracacocha, created the world from the Island of the Sun on Lake Titicaca and he walked to the Pacific ocean, where he left walking on water, just as Sumé arrived on the Atlantic.
- Unity and separation along South America´s Peabiru – Bébhinn Ramsay - Evidence of Maize exploitation around an ancient crossroad linking diferrent arboriginal American Civilizations - Patricia Bustamante. - Maximilian Alexander Philipp, Voyage au Brésil: dans les années 1815, 1816 et 1817.
Mesolithic Cave Paintings, Monte Alegre, Pará, Brazil.
Anna C. Roosevelt (American archaeologist) rediscovered and excavated the cave extensively from 1990 to 1992. The excavations were supported by the Field Museum and the University of Illinois, Chicago. The lowest levels of the cave were radiocarbon dated and Thermoluminescence dated back to ca. 11,200 to 10,000 years ago. Roosevelt’s findings suggested that the study of migration of humans into the Americas, as well as the development of civilization in the Amazon, needed to be revisited.
Amazon Stonehenge (Megalithic AstrologicalObservatory) 2000 years old, Calçoene, Amapá, Brazil.
The first reports of Amazon Stonehenge are from Swiss-Brazilian naturalist and zoologist Émil Goeldi (1859-1917), in the late 19th century. It is this block’s alignment with the winter solstice and consists of 127 blocks of granite, each up to 4 meters tall, standing upright in a circle measuring over 30 meters in diameter.